While the Paris Agreement points the way forward for the future fight against climate change, its direction still needs to be developed. In particular, the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement (APA), which was created to prepare the agreement for its entry into force, has been tasked with an enormous amount of work. While these countries are not bound by the requirements of the agreement, they are not protected by its provisions and are not able to actively participate in it, this is governance. Countries that have not ratified can observe the meetings of the board of directors of the agreement, but they cannot vote on how the agreement will be implemented. Countries may deposit their articles of accession to the United Nations and ratify the Agreement at any time before or after its entry into force. .